Cognitive abilities, including attention, memory, processing, and problem-solving, are the foundation of your daily life, shaping how you learn, communicate, and solve problems. However, cognitive disorders may disrupt these abilities, creating significant challenges. In this article, Evoke Neuroscience will discuss some common types of cognitive disorders and their impact on individuals.
• Alzheimer’s Disease – This is caused by changes in the brain that result in the formation of abnormal protein deposits (plaques) and tangled nerve fibers (tangles). Symptoms include memory loss, confusion, inability to recognize familiar faces, and behavioral changes.
• Vascular Dementia – Often caused by a stroke or reduced blood flow to the brain, vascular dementia involves cognitive and behavioral changes. Such changes include memory problems, difficulties with problem-solving, and slowed thinking.
• Lewy Body Dementia – Characterized by the presence of abnormal protein deposits (Lewy bodies) in the brain, this type of dementia often has symptoms like fluctuating attention, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonism (tremors, stiffness, and balance problems).
• Frontotemporal Dementia – This form of dementia is caused by the degeneration of specific areas of the brain, particularly the frontal and temporal lobes. It often leads to personality and behavioral changes, such as disinhibition, apathy, and language problems.
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Mild Cognitive Impairment is a stage between normal age-related cognitive decline and dementia. Evoke Neuroscience Individuals with MCI have memory and cognitive difficulties greater than expected for their age, but they can still maintain independence in daily activities. However, MCI increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)-Related Cognitive Disorders
Traumatic brain injuries, caused by a blow or jolt to the head, can lead to cognitive impairments. Depending on the severity and location of the injury, symptoms may include memory problems, slowed information processing, attention deficits, and difficulty with problem-solving or decision-making.
Lastly, amnestic disorders involve impairments in memory that cannot be explained by normal aging. These disorders may be due to a range of causes, including brain injury, infection, or vitamin deficiencies. Symptoms include the inability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia) or recall past events (retrograde amnesia).